An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15524 entries, 13375 authors and 1905 subjects. Updated: January 26, 2022

Browse by Publication Year 1790–1799

169 entries
  • 1838.1

Medical botany, containing systematic and general descriptions, with plates, of all the medicinal plants, indigenous and exotic, comprehended in the catalogues of the materia medica, as published by the Royal Colleges of Physicians of London and Edinburgh: Accompanied with a circumstantial detail of their medicinal effects, and of the diseases in which they have been most successfully employed. 3 vols. & Supplement.

London: Phillips for the author, 17901794.

Issued in numbers from 1790-1795, this is the first edition in book form. This work, which underwent several later editions, remained the standard work on the plants of the British pharmacopoeia until the 1880s. Digital facsimile of the first edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Later editions frequently contained beautiful hand-colored plates.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 157

Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte. 2 pts.

Göttingen, 17901811.

English translation, London, 1865.

  • 198

Decas collectionis suae craniorum diversarum gentium illustrata. 7 pts. plus supplement.

Gottingen: J. C. Dieterich, 17901828.

Blumenbach was the founder of craniology, and his craniological collection served as the principal foundation for his investigations into the natural history of mankind. He used the norma verticalis, the shape of the skull as seen from above, as the means of distinguishing three types: Mongols, Negroes, and Caucasians. The above work includes a description of the uncinate (“Blumenbach’s”) process. See No. 156.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology
  • 2925.1

An account of an aneurism in the thigh, perfectly cured by the operation.

Med. Communications Mass. Med. Soc., 1, 96-98, 1790.

The first femoral ligation reported in America, and the first paper on a surgical topic to be published in an American medical periodical.

  • 3677.1

Remarks on the diseases of the teeth.

American Museum, Universal Magazine, 7, 266-268., Philadelphia: Carey, Stewart and Co., 1790.

The first "scientific" paper on dentistry to appear in an American periodical. Trained in France, Gardette accepted a commission as a surgeon in the French navy and went to America in 1778 when France sent her ships to defend the cause of the American Revolution. Digital facsimile of the journal volume from Google Books at this link. The same volume of the journal contains an advertisement for "Mr. Gardette's Dentifrice (carefully put up in pewter pots) to whiten the teeth and harden the gums, preserving the former from decay and the latter from the scurvy. . . ." 

  • 5523

An account of a distemper, by the common people in England vulgarly called the mumps.

Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb., 2, 59-72, 1790.

First modern account of the occurrence of parotitis and orchitis complicating it. Hamilton’s paper, read in 1773, by its fullness and clarity made the disease more generally known, so that within a few years many text books included descriptions of it.

  • 7329

The anatomical instructor; or, an illustration of the modern and most approved methods of preparing and preserving the different parts of the human body, and of quadrupeds, by injection, corrosion, maceration, distention, articulation, modelling, &c.

London: Couchman and Fry, 1790.

The first monograph on the preparation of anatomical specimens for museums, from various parts of the human body. Includes a method for injecting colored solutions to show the blood vessels of the head, and a method for showing the distribution of the nerves, along with many others. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 7366

Journal of a voyage to New South Wales with sixty five plates of non descript. animals, birds, lizards, serpents, curious cones of trees and other natural productions. By John White, Surgeon-General to the settlement.

London: J. Debrett, 1790.

This work described many Australian species for the first time. It includes natural history illustrations after watercolor paintings by Sarah Stone. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link

Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, NATURAL HISTORY, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY
  • 7657

A companion to the museum, (Late Sir Ashton Lever's) removed to Albion Street, the Surry end of Black Friar's Bridge.

London: Printed in the year, 1790.

A room by room, case by case guide to Lever's celebrated museum of natural history and ethnography, authorshop of which is unidentified. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Ethnology, MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 10002

Essays on fashionable diseases. The dangerous effects of hot and crouded rooms. The cloathing of invalids. Lady and gentlemen doctors. And on quacks and quackery. With the genuine patent prescriptions of Dr. James's fever power, Tickell's aetherial spirit, & Godbold's balsam, taken from the Rolls in Chancery, and under the seal of the proper officers; and also the ingredients and compostion of many of the most celebrated quack nostrums, as analized by several of the best chemists in Europe. By James M. Adair, Formerly M.D.... With a dedication to Philip Thicknesse ... To which is added a dramatic dialogue. Published for the benefit of the tin-miners in Cornwal. By Benjamin Gossequill, and Peter Paragraph.

London: T. P. Bateman, 1790.

An attack on quack medicines, etc. with one of the most verbose title pages of the 18th century. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 11229

Viaggio negli Stati Uniti dell' America settentrionale fatto negli anni 1785, 1786, e 1787. 2 vols.

Milan: Giuseppe Marelli, 1790.

Castiglioni was one of very few Italians to make the journey to America and to produce a detailed day-to-day account of his observations in the young country. His "Viaggio" is a systematic compendium of information drawn from both observation and secondary sources on the topography, history, instructions, agriculture and industry of the individual states from Massachusetts to Georgia. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Translated into English and edited by Antonio Pace, with an natural history commentary by Joseph and Nesta Ewan as Luigi Castiglioni's Viaggio: Travels in the United States of North America 1785-87. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1983.

Subjects: Agriculture / Horticulture, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11783

Tratado da educação fysica dos meninos, para uso da naçaõ Portugueza publicado por ordem da Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa.

Lisbon: Na Officina da Academia Real das Sciencias, 1790.

The first work on pediatrics written by a Brazilian physician. Digital facsimile from Biblioteca digital Luso-Brasileira at this link.

  • 13623

De l'usage du quinquina dans les fièvres rémittentes. Mémoire qui a remporté en 1785, au jugement de la Societé Royale de Médecine de Paris.

Paris: Théophile Barrois, Mecquignon, Croullebois, 1790.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark
  • 13642

English botany; or, coloured figures of British plants, with their essential characters, synonyms, and places of growth. To which will be added, occasional remarks. 36 vols.

London: Printed for the author by J. Davis [etc], 17901814.

Issued in parts. Images by Sowerby; text by  Sir James Edward Smith. Only Sowerby is credited on the title page. Includes 2,592 hand-colored plates of British plants. 

"Buyers of this work today must exercise extreme caution. Because of its popularity, editions were published over many years, sometimes with images produced from worn out plates, parts from earlier editions and other bibliographic nightmares. The second edition of this work was merely a restrike of the first, and mixed editions were routinely produced. Sets of the final edition (usually in 13 volumes of quarto size, with 1,936 plates), designated the third edition, appeared as late as 1892, and were illustrated with crude lithographic (albeit hand-colored) copies of Sowerby's original engravings. There are also pirated editions" (Lawrence H. Conklin, "James Sowerby, his publications and collections," Minerological Record, Vol. 26, July-August, 1995).

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom)
  • 13699

Culpeper's English physician; and complete herbal. To which are now first added upwards of one hundred additional herbs, with a display of their medicinal and occult properties, physically applied to the cure of all disorders incident to mankind. To which are annexed rules for compounding medicine according to the true system of nature, forming a complete family dispensatory and natural system of physic. Beautified and enriched with engravings of upwards of four hundred and fifty different plants, and a set of anatomical figures....

London: Printed for the proprietors and sold by C. Stalker, 1790.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: Magic & Superstition in Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 926

Mémoire sur la combinaison de l’oxigéne avec le carbone et l’hydrogéne du sang, sur la dissolution de l’oxigéne dans le sang, et sur la maniére dont le calorique se dégage.

Ann. Chim., 9, 261-74, 1791.

Hassenfratz, a pupil of Lagrange, maintained that the oxidation of carbon and hydrogen took place in the blood, and not in the lungs as taught by others.

  • 593

De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius.

Bonon. Sci. Art. Inst. Acad. Comment., Bologna, 7, 363-418, 1791.

In the course of his experiments on irritable responses caused by static electricity applied to frog muscles, Galvani produced electric current from the contact of two different metals in a moist environment. Galvani mistakenly believed this phenomenon (which his nephew Giovanni Aldini called “galvanism”) to be animal electricity. See No. 594.1 Facsimile of Volta’s copy, with English translation, and bibliography of editions and translations by J.F. Fulton and M.E. Stanton, Norwalk, Conn., Bumdy Library, 1953.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 400

Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers. 5 pts.

Frankfurt: M. Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 17911796.

Soemmerring’s text-book contained only facts actually observed by him. He departed from the usual practice of including physiology with anatomy. The book was very popular in German medical schools, and Meckel considered it Soemmerring’s best work. It includes a very full list of what Soemmerring considered his anatomical discoveries.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century
  • 534.55

Abbildungen und Beschreibungen einiger Missgeburten.

Mainz: Universitazbehandlung, 1791.

Most of the plates demonstrate a progressive series of specimens with duplication anomalies of the face and head, from midfacial cleft to complete dicephalus. This arrangement of malformations into a continuous series with definable steps anticipated the taxonomic approach of the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaires.

  • 3250

Observation sur un fongus du sinus maxillaire.

J. Chir. (Paris), 1, 111-16, 1791.

First successful operation on a tumor of the maxillary sinus, 1789.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Rhinology, SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 4017

Observations on certain horny excrescences of the human body.

Phil. Trans., 81, 95-105, 1791.

Original description of cornu cutaneum.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 4306

Abbildungen und Beschreibungen einiger Misgeburten.

Mainz: Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1791.

Achondroplasia is first described on page 30 and pictured on plate 11. English translation in No. 2241.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Disorders of the Skeleton › Achondroplasia, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton › Congenital Diseases
  • 4165.01

Traité des maladies des voies urinaires. 2 vols.

Paris: L'Auteur & Croullebois (Vol. 2), 17911792.

Chopart and Desault were the founders of urological surgery, both emphasizing the importance of considering the urinary tract as a whole. “They were close friends and were both able clinicians, surgeons and teachers. Desault was a brilliant lecturer who wrote little while Chopart, a poor speaker, published an outstanding textbook on urology” (Desnos, transl. Murphy).

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4439

La médecine éclairée par les sciences physiques. 4 vols.

Paris: Buisson, 17911792.

This work edited by Fourcroy contains in vol. 4 (pp. 85-88) the first description of Chopart’s method of partial amputation of the foot. This is in the form of a note by Lafiteau: “Observation sur une amputation partielle du pied”. Lafiteau also named “Chopart’s joint”, the astragaloscaphoid and calcaneo-cuboid articulation. François Chopart was born in 1743 and died in 1795.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Amputations: Excisions: Resections
  • 5833.2

Praktische Beobachtungen über verschiedene, vorzüglich aber über jene Augenkrankheiten, welche aus allgemeinen Krankheiten des Körpers entspringen.

Vienna: F. J. Kaiserer, 1791.

“This is the first monograph ever published dealing with ocular signs of systemic disease. It deals with lacrimal fistulas, trichiasis, adhesions of the lids, lid ulcers, ephiphora, and ocular inflammations. He illustrates through anecdotal cases the ocular changes caused by smallpox, measles, venereal afflictions, gouty and rheumatic diseases, scrofula, and dietary deficiencies” (D.M. Albert).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Scrofula (Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox , OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 6160

Abhandlungen und Versuche geburtshilflichen Inhalts. 2 vols.

Vienna: C.F. Wappler, 17911806.

Böer, a pioneer of “natural childbirth”, was the founder of the Viennese school of obstetrics.

  • 6161

Abhandlung über die Entbindungskunst.

St. Petersburg, Russia: K. Akad. D. Wiss, 1791.

This work was edited by order of Catherine II of Russia, to whom von Mohrenheim was accoucheur. Its importance lies mainly in its splendid engravings, some of which were taken from Smellie (see No. 6154.1). It includes a brief literary history of obstetrics.

  • 7770

Travels through North & South Carolina, George, East & West Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws [sic]...

Philadelphia: James & Johnson, 1791.

Digital facsimile of London, 1794 second edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 8580

Return of the whole number of persons with the several districts of the United States, according to "An Act Providing for the Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States," passed March the first, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one.

Philadelphia: Printed by Childs and Swaine, 1791.

The first Census of the United States was conducted on August 2, 1790. The results were used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and funding for government programs.The federal census records for the first census are missing for five states: Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey and Virginia. They were destroyed some time between the time of the census-taking and 1830. The census estimated the population of the United States at 3,929,214, ". . . of which 697,681 were slaves, and . . . the largest cities were New York City with 33,000 inhabitants, Philadelphia, with 28,000, Boston, with 18,000, Charleston, South Carolina, with 16,000, and Baltimore, with 13,000." Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 9522

A treatise of the plague: Containing an historical journal, and medical account, of the plague, at Aleppo, in the years 1760, 1761, and 1762.

London: G. G. J. & J. Robinson, 1791.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Syria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) › Plague, History of
  • 10111

A treatise on the fevers of Jamaica, with some observations on the intermitting fever of America, and an appendix containing some hints on the means of preserving the health of soldiers in hot climates.

London: Printed for J. Murray, 1791.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 10469

Recherches diététiques du médecin patriote sur la santé et sur les maladies observées dans les séminaires, dans les pensionnats, et chez les ouvrières en dentelle. Suivies de réflexions sur le traitement de la petite vérole, et d’un mémoire sur le régime des convalescens et des valètudinaires.

Le Puy-en-Velay: De l'imprimerie de la Société typographique, 1791.

Includes a study of the diseases of women lace workers. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 12721

Mémoires de la vie privée de Benjamin Franklin, écrits par lui-même, et adressés a son fils; suivis d'un précis historique de sa vie politique, et de plusieurs pièces, relatives à ce père de la liberté.

Paris: Chez Buisson, 1791.

"The Autobiography remained unpublished during Franklin's lifetime. In 1791, the first edition appeared, in French rather than English, as Mémoires de la vie privée de Benjamin Franklin, published in Paris. This translation of Part One only was based on a flawed transcript made of Franklin's manuscript before he had revised it. This French translation was then retranslated into English in two London publications of 1793, and one of the London editions served as a basis for a retranslation into French in 1798 in an edition which also included a fragment of Part Two.

"The first three parts of the Autobiography were first published together (in English) by Franklin's grandson, William Temple Franklin, in London in 1818, in Volume 1 of Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin. W. T. Franklin did not include Part Four because he had previously traded away the original hand-written holograph of the Autobiography for a copy that contained only the first three parts. Furthermore, he felt free to make unauthoritative stylistic revisions to his grandfather's autobiography, and on occasion followed the translated and retranslated versions mentioned above rather than Ben Franklin's original text.

"W. T. Franklin's text was the standard version of the Autobiography for half a century, until John Bigelow purchased the original manuscript in France and in 1868 published the most reliable text that had yet appeared, including the first English publication of Part Four. In the 20th century, important editions by Max Ferrand and the staff of the Huntington Library in San Marino, California (Benjamin Franklin's Memoirs: Parallel Text Edition, 1949) and by Leonard W. Labaree (1964, as part of the Yale University Press edition of The Papers of Benjamin Franklin) improved on Bigelow's accuracy. In 1981, J. A. Leo Lemay and P.M. Zall produced The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: A Genetic Text, attempting to show all revisions and cancellations in the holograph manuscript. This, the most accurate edition of all so far published, served as a basis for Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography: A Norton Critical Edition and for the text of this autobiography printed in the Library of America's edition of Franklin's Writings.

"The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin also became the first full-length audiobook in history, which was voiced by actor Michael Rye and released in 1969.[3

(Wikipedia article on The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, accessed 5-2020).

Digital facsimile of the first edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography
  • 12825

Icones selectæ plantarum, quas in Japonia collegit et delineavit; Engelbertus Kaempfer; ex archetypis in Museo Britannico asservatis. Edited by Sir Joseph Banks.

London, 1791.

Sir Joseph Banks was responsible for publishing most of Kaempfer's studies of Japanese plants, which had remained unpublished for more than 70 years. This work introduced many Japanese plants to Western botanists.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 12894

Abhandlung über Flüsse und Entzündungen, wovon Geschwülste und Zahnfleischgeschwüre herrühren.

Leipzig: Joseph Stahel, 1791.

One of the first treatises on gum diseases, which around a century later would be called periodontics. Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Periodontics
  • 13254

Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache nebst Beschreibung seiner sprechenden Maschine.

Vienna: J. B. Degen, 1791.

Kempelen built the first successful speech synthesizer that produced not only some speech sounds, but also whole words and short sentences. His final version of the machine, which differs slightly from the version shown in the book, is preserved in the Deutsches Museum Munich, in the department of musical instruments. Digital facsimile from at this link. Degen issued an edition of Kempelen's book in French also in 1791. Digital facsimile of the French edition from Google Books at this link.

Parallel English translation and edited German text as Der Mechanismus der menschlichen Sprache. / The Mechanism of Human Speech.: Kommentierte Transliteration & Übertragung ins Englische / Commented Transliteration & Translation into English. Herausgegeben von / Edited by Fabian Brackhane, Richard Sproat & Jürgen Trouvain. 2 vols. Dresden, 2017. Digital facsimile of the modern edition was available at this link:

Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of › Speech Synthesis
  • 13419

Catalogue des livres de la bibliothèque de feu M. Mirabeau l'ainé.

Paris: Chez Rozet & Chez Belin, 1791.

Includes much of Buffon's library, pp. 160-212. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 2158.1

Manuel du chirurgien-d’armée.

Paris: Méquignon, 1792.

One of Napoleon’s leading surgeons, Percy laid down his principles of the practice of military surgery in the same year he was appointed médecin consultant of the Army of the North. He devised his own instrument for bullet extraction, the tribulcon. He was responsible, with Larrey, for the invention of special ambulances and squads of litter-bearers, including a “super-ambulance” capable of carrying 8 surgeons, 8 attendants, and dressings for 1200.

  • 158

Ueber den natürlichen Unterschied der Gesichtszüge in Menschen verschiedener Gegenden und verschiedenen Alters.

Berlin: Vossische Buchhandlung, 1792.

This work on physiognomy includes Camper’s description of his craniometrical methods. Camper is chiefly remembered for the “facial angle” of his own invention. The book first appeared in Dutch in 1791. English translation in Camper, The works… on the connexion between… anatomy and the arts, London, 1794. Digital facsimile of the 1792 edition from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Anthropometry, ANTHROPOLOGY › Craniology
  • 1775

An historical account of the climates and diseases of the United States of America, and of the remedies and methods of treatment, which have been found most useful and efficacious, particularly in those diseases which depend upon climate and situation: collected pricipally from personal observation, and the communications of physicians of talents and experience, residing in the several states.

Philadelphia: T. Dobson, 1792.

Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: Bioclimatology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 1776

Versuch einer allgemeinen medizinisch-praktischen Geographie, worin der historische Theil der einheimischen Völker-und Saaten-Arzeneykunde vergetragen wird. 3 vols.

Leipzig: Weidmann, 17921795.

The first comprehensive medical geography. See George Rosen, "Leonhard Ludwig Finke and the first medical geography," IN: Underwood, E. A. (ed.). Science and medicine in history: Essays on the evolution of scientific thought and medical practice written in honour of Charles Singer (London: Oxford University Press, 1953) Vol. 2, 186-193. Fincke is known to have developed a very early disease map, supposedly inspired by Zimmerman's pioneering map of the distribution of mammals. However, Fincke did not publish his map. Digital facsimile of the 1792-95 edition from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

Subjects: Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 1965

De curandis hominum morbis epitome. 6 vols.

Mannheim: C.F. Schwan, 17921794.

  • 3810

Essai sur le goitre et le crétinage. Où l'on recherche particulièrement quelles son les causes de ces deux maladies des habitans des vallées, et quels sont les moyens physiques et moraux qu'il convient d'employer pour s'en préserver entièrement à l'avenir.

Turin: De l'Imprimerie Royale, 1792.

Fodéré considered cretinism to be due to the concentrated air in deep valleys, rather than to water. He also drew attention to the skeletal changes. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 3984

Dermato-pathologia; or practical observations, from some new thoughts on the pathology and proximate cause of diseases of the true skin.

London: H. Reynell, 1792.

An attempt to classify skin diseases upon the basis of their pathology.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology
  • 6358

Von Menschen ohne Haare und Zähne.

Arch. Geburtsh. (Jena), 4, 684, 1792.

Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia first described. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY › Oral Pathology , DERMATOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Skin Disorders › Ectodermal Dyplasia
  • 6382

Versuch einer pragmatischen Geschichte der Arzneikunde. 5 vols.

Halle: J. J. Gebauer, 17921803.

A monumental work, full of information which was of great assistance to later historians. Includes a useful chronology. Third edition, 1821-28; fourth edition of vol. 1, 1846.

Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 6604.91

Redevoeringen over die wijze om de verscheidene hartstogten op onze wezens te verbeelden…

Utrecht: Wild en Altheer, 1792.

Lectures on the methods of representing the passions in the human face, and on other aspects of medicine and the arts. German translation, Berlin, 1793. See No. 158.

Subjects: ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 4518

De vertebralis columnae in morbis dignitate. In his Delectus opusculorum medicorum, 11, 1-50

Ticino, 1792.

Frank, best remembered for his great services to public health, was the first physician to emphasize the gravity of diseases of the spinal cord.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 9087

The natural history of British insects; explaining them in their several states, with the periods of their transformations, their food, oeconomy, &c. Together with the history of such minute insects as require investigation by the microscope. The whole illustrated by coloured figures, designed and executed from living specimens. 16 vols.

London: Printed for the author, 17921813.

Includes a total of 576 plates, of which 568 were colored.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 13055

Catalogus librorum in bibliotheca Societatis medicae Edinburgenae, secundum auctorum nomina dispositus.

Edinburgh: Mundell et Filum, 1792.

Digital facsimile from at this link. Later editions, 1799, 1804, 1812.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Medical Libraries, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Scotland
  • 13154

Del coraggio nelle malattie. Trattato.

Parma: Giambattista Bodoni, 1792.

Pasta was a pioneer in promoting the value of psychological support for treating patients with severe physical disaease. His paper, printed by the celebrated Giambattista Bodoni, promotes courage and philosophical tolerance of disease, and the etiquette of the physician in such cases.

  • 13323

Quinología o Tratado del árbol de la quina ó cascarilla:con su descripción y la de otras especies de quinos nuevamente descubiertas en el Perú....

Madrid: En la Oficina de la viuda é hijo de Marin, 1792.

Ruiz, a Spanish pharmacist and botanist, was appointed director of the Expedición Botánica al Virreinato del Perú, during which he traveled extensively through Chile and Peru along with botanists José Pavón and Joseph Dombey. In 1801 Ruiz co-authored a supplementary work on a new species of cinchona with José Pavón: Suplemento a la quinología: en el qual [sic] se aumentan las especies de quina nuevamente descubiertas en el Perú por Don Juan Tafalla y la quina naranjada de Santa Fe con su estampa:añádese la respuesta a la memoria de las quinas de Santa Fe que insertó Don Francisco Zea en los Anales de Historia Natural, y la satisfación a los reparos o dudas del ciudadano Jussieu sobre los géneros del pródromo de la flora del Perú y Chile.  Digital facsimile of the 1792 work from Google Books at this link, and of the Suplemento at this link

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Chile, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark › Quinine
  • 13371

Description de l'Hôpital général du Cap, dans laquelle on donne une idée de l'influence de l'air des marais sur les maladies endémiques qu'on y observe, avec un apperçu des inconvéniens de la situation du cimetière actuel, et ceux qui peuvent encore résulter du trop grand rapprochement du cimetière général que l'on vient d'établir. Ce mémoire a été lu en presence de MM. de Mirbeck et Roume, commissaires nationaux-civils délégués par le Roi à Saint-Domingue, associés nationaux de la Société royale des sciences et Arts du Cap-Français, dans sa séance du 30 janvier 1792.

Cap-François, Saint-Domingue, 1792.

Date inferred from reference on p. 14.  Arthaud was "médecin breveté par le Roi au Cap, associé de la Société philosophique de Philadelphie, correspondant de la Société royale de médecin de Paris, de la Société des sciences de Montpellier et de l'Académie royal de chirugie."

  • 13765

Dissertatio inauguralis medica de effectibus musicae in hominem.

Erlangen: Typis Kunstmannianis, 1792.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Music and Medicine
  • 594

Premier mémoire sur la respiration des animaux.

Hist. Acad. Sci. (Paris), (1789), 566-84, 1793.

Séguin and Lavoisier measured the metabolism of a man (Séguin himself). They made three observations of fundamental importance in this respect; that the intensity of oxidation in man is dependent upon (1) food, (2) environmental temperature, and (3) mechanical work.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 104.1

Das entdeckte Geheimnis der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen.

Berlin: Friedrich Vieweg, 1793.

Sprengel demonstrated for the first time that the whole structure of nectar-bearing flowers is adapted for fertilization by insects. In his study of the Rose-bay Sprengel discovered dichogamy – that in some plants the two sexes (stigmas and anthers) while occurring in one blossom, mature at different times. This prevents the flowers from being fertilized by their own pollen, and necessitates fertilization by the pollen carried to them by insects.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, EVOLUTION
  • 1386.1

Examen chimique du cerveau de plusieurs animaux.

Ann. Chim. (Paris), 16, 282-97, 1793.

Fourcroy, French physician and chemist, made important researches on the chemistry of the brain. He noted albumen (protein) as a principal constituent.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1486

Observations on vision.

Phil. Trans., 83, 169-81, 1793.

Thomas Young is regarded as one of the most versatile of all scientists. In the above work he showed that the act of accommodation is due to a change of curvature of the crystalline lens, whereby light rays of various lengths can be brought to a focus on the retina.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 2281
  • 3218
  • 3427

The morbid anatomy of some of the most important parts of the human body.

London: J. Johnson & G. Nicol, 1793.

Baillie was a nephew and pupil of William Hunter. The above is the first systematic textbook of morbid anatomy, treating the subject for the first time as an independent science. See also Nos. 2736, 3167.1. Baillie was the last and most eminent owner of the famous gold-headed cane (No. 6709). His clear and comprehensive description of the pulmonary lesions of tuberculosis could hardly be bettered today; he differentiated the nodular and infiltrating types. Page 87: First clear description of the morbid anatomy and symptoms of gastric ulcer. Baillie is also credited with the first descritpion of transposition of the great vessels in this work.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines, PATHOLOGY, PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases › Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  • 3579

Nuevo método de operar en la hernia crural.

Madrid: vda. Ibarra, 1793.

Description of Gimbernat’s operation for strangulated femoral hernia. In the same work he also described the ligament in the crural arch named after him. Gimbernat was a pioneer in ophthalmology, vascular surgery, and urology. English translation as A New Method of Operating for the Femoral Hernia, translated by T. Beddoes, London, 1795. For biographical note, see N. M. Matheson, Brit. med. Bull., 1945, 3, 238-39. Digital facsimile of the 1793 edition from Biblioteca Virtual de la  Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia, España at this link.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 2735

History of a case in which there took place a remarkable slowness of the pulse.

Med. Commentaries (1792), Edinburgh, 7, 458-65, 1793.

Morgagni described a case of “epilepsy with slow pulse” (see No. 2734), but Adams has been given the credit for reporting the first clear case of heart block (No. 2745). There is no doubt that Spens reported such a case in 1792.

  • 3428

Saggio d’osservazioni, e memoire sopra alcuni case singolari riscontrati nell’esercizio della medicina, e della anatomia pratica.

Padua: Penada, 1793.

Includes (pp. 33-56) an account of perforating duodenal ulcer.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer
  • 4921

Della pazzia in genere, e in specie, trattato medico-analitico, con una centuri di osservatzioni. 3 vols.

Florence: Luigi Carlieri, 17931794.

Chiarugi was the first in Europe to abandon chains and fetters in a mental hospital. He required a case history for each patient, hygienic rooms with segregation of the sexes, no restraint beyond strait jacket and cotton strips, and regard for the patient as a person. He encouraged the patients to work and their attendants to practice kindness towards them. First edition in English: On Insanity and its Classification, translated with a foreward and Introduction by George Mora (1987).

  • 6022

Ueber die Wirkungen der Schnürbrüste.

Berlin: Voss, 1793.

Soemmerring enumerated the bad effects of tight corsets on the internal organs of women. His book created much interest and resulted in a great decline in the fad of tight lacing and hoop skirts. This is the second edition, with one copperplate illustration at the end. The first, unillustrated, edition was published at Leipzig, 1788. Digital facsimile of the 1793 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 5451

A short account of the malignant fever, lately prevalent in Philadelphia: With a statement of the proceedings that took place on the subject in different parts of the United States.

Philadelphia: The Author, 1793.

Carey was a Philadelphia publisher and economist rather than a physician. In this little book, which passed through four editions in a few months, Carey left a graphic description of the great yellow fever epidemic of Philadelphia in 1793, which infected about 17,000 people and left 5000 people dead, out of a population estimated at 45,000-50,000. Carey gave a good clinical description of the disease, mentioning the efficacy and the failure of many forms of treatment. Regrettably Carey accused blacks of causing the epidemic and of taking advantage of victims while acting as nurses. Wide distribution of the pamphlet contributed to fears and hostility in the city in which members of the Free African Society had risked their lives as nurses and aides to the sick and dying. Digital facsimile of the third edition, 1793, from the Internet Archive at this link.

To the fourth edition of January 16, 1794 Carey appended the following: "Acounts of the plague in London and Marseilles; and a list of the dead, from August 1, to the middle of December, 1793." Digital facsimile of the 4th edition from the Internet Archive at this link.


  • 5452

A description of the malignant, infectious fever prevailing at present in Philadelphia; with an account of the means to prevent infection, and the remedies and method of treatment, which have been found most successful.

Philadelphia: T. Dobson, 1793.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 2378
  • 5200

A treatise on gonorrhoea virulenta, and lues venerea. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: J. Watson & G. Mudie, 1793.

Bell was the first to differentiate between gonorrhoea and syphilis.

  • 6750

Initia bibliothecae medico-practicae et chirurgicae realis sive repertorii medicinae practicae et chirurgiae. 8 vols.

Tübingen: J. G. Cotta, 17931797.

The first important classified bibliography of medical literature covering both monographic material and current periodicals.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 9059

Medcinische Fastenpredigten, oder Vorlesungen über Körper und Seelendiätetik zur Verbesserung der Gesundheit und Sitten. 2 vols.

Mannheim, 1793.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Hygiene, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 9074

Elementos de cirurgia ocular offerecidos a Sua Alteza Real o Senhor D. João Principe do Brazil.

Lisbon: Na Officina de Simão Thaddeo Ferreira, 1793.

The first Portuguese book on ophthalmology. Santa Ana was the first Portuguese physician to specialize in ophthalmology. "He acknowledges (pp. vii-viii) that the section of the Elementos on anatomy and physiology is a translation of Deshais-Gendron’s Traité des maladies des yeux, 1770, but states that he made numerous corrections based on his own experience: “Aqui forão necessarias hum maior número de emendas, tanto em Anatomia, como em Fysica.” Likewise the section on pathology and therapy is a translation from Plenck’s Doctrina de morbis oculorum, 1777, but has numerous corrections based on Santa Anna’s experience." (Richard Ramer). Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 10590

An inquiry into the nature and properties of opium: Wherein its component principles, mode of operation, and use or abuse in particular diseases, are experimentally investigated, and the opinions of former authors on these points impartially examined.

London: Printed for G.G. and J. Robinson, 1793.

Crumpe undertook extensive experiments to understand the effects of opium. His book provided the first detailed description of the effects of narcotic withdrawal. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction
  • 11312

Museum anatomicum academiae Lugduno-Batavae. 4 vols.

Leiden: S. & J. Luchtmans, 17931835.

This work, complete in over 1000 pages, with hundreds of full page plates, was begun by Eduard Sandifort and completed 42 years later by his son Gerard. Many of the plates illustrate diseases of bone. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration
  • 11576

Storia di un monocolo con alcune riflessioni.

Bologna: Per le stampe di S. Tommaso, 1793.

A rather elegantly produced and illustrated medical monograph on a cyclops, with plates printed in sepia. Engraved headpieces allude to monsters from classical mythology  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 12950

A sketch of a tour on the Continent, in the years 1786 and 1787. 3 vols.

London: Printed for the author, by J. Davis, 1793.

Includes an index to the natural history aspects that Smith recorded. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 12951

A specimen of the botany of New Holland. By James Edward Smith. The figures by James Sowerby. Vol. 1 (All Published).

London: Printed by J. Davis: published by J. Sowerby, 17931795.

The first published book on the flora of Australia, issued by Sowerby in four parts between 1793 and 1795. It included 16 hand-colored plates reproducing paintings by Sowerby, mostly based on sketches by John White, author of A journal of a voyage to New South Wales (1790), and 54 pages of accompanying text by Sir James Edward Smith.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia
  • 13041

The history of Dahomy, an inland kingdom of Africa; compiled from authentic memoirs; with an introduction and notes.

London: Printed for the Editor by T. Spilsbury and Son, 1793.

Dalzel studied medicine at Edinburgh, and served in the Royal Navy as a surgeon during the Seven Years’ War (1756–63). Discharged in 1763, he accepted a position as a surgeon in the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa, and was stationed at Anomabu on the Gold Coast. While in West Africa he began slave trading. Considering the horrifically  inhumane aspects of slave trading, it is possible that Dalzel was the only physician who actually profited directly from the trade, and was motivated to write a book defending it.

From 1767 to 1770 Dalzel was director of the British fort at Ouida. He then concentrated on slave trading until he was declared bankrupt in 1778. Dalzel was active in the campaign opposing abolition. He argued in this book that the raiding of Dahomean villages for slaves was "saving them from the great evil of being human sacrifices." Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, Slavery and Medicine, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 13435

Catalogue de la bibliothèque de feu M. Louis, Secrétaire perpétuel de l'Académie de chirurgie, &c. Dont la vente se fera dans une salle du Collège de chirurgie, rue des Cordeliers, le lundi 7 janvier 1793 & les jours suivans, trois heures de relevée.

Paris, 1793.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 13619

A paper on the prevention and treatment of the disorders of the seamen and soldiers in Bengal. Presented to the Honourable Court of East-India Directors, in the year 1791.

London: Printed for J. Murray, 1793.

Murray was in the Bengal Medical Service from 1782 to 1802.  This was his report to the Directors of the East-India Company. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 594.1

Dell’uso e dell’attività dell arco conduttore nelle contrazioni dei muscoli.

Bologna: S. Tommaso dAquino, 1794.

The first account of Galvani’s electrical experiments without the presence of metals, in which he demonstrated the presence of electrical energy in living tissue by showing that convulsions in frog nerve-muscle preparations could be produced simply by touching nerve to muscle. This observation of the injury current of nerve or demarcation current was the first proof of animal electricity. The key experiment appears in a 23-page “Supplemento” following p. 168. Some authorities consider this a joint publication of Galvani and Aldini. See No. 593.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 105

Zoonomia; or the laws of organic life. 2 vols.

London: J. Johnson, 17941796.

Grandfather of Charles Darwin and Francis Galton, Erasmus Darwin provided in Zoonomia, his major work in medicine and natural science, the first consistent all-embracing hypothesis of evolution. Nevertheless, his grandson, Charles, said Erasmus’s theory had no effect on his On the Origin of Species.

  • 1253

Tabulae nevrologicae, ad illustrandum historiam anatomicam cardiacorum nervorum, noni nervorum cerebri, glossopharyngaei et pharyngaei ex octavo cerebri.

Pavia: B. Comini, 1794.

This elegantly illustrated anatomical atlas is regarded as Scarpa’s greatest work. The result of 20 years of research, it includes the first proper delineation of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, hypoglossal, and cardiac nerves, and the first demonstration of cardiac innervation. Scarpa was a skilful draughtsman. He personally trained Faustino Anderloni, the artist who made the drawings and engraved the copperplates for his books.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 2283

A treatise on the blood, inflammation, and gun-shot wounds.

London: G. Nicol, 1794.

It was while serving with the army at Belle Isle during the Seven Years’ War that Hunter collected the material for his epoch-making book on inflammation and gunshot wounds. His studies on inflammation in particular are fundamental for pathology. Hunter recognized the process of inflammation as one of the most widespread phenomena in pathology, and classified it into three types: adhesive, in which adherence of contiguous parts caused localization of disease; suppurative, in which pus was formed; and ulcerative, in which tissue loss occurred through the action of the lymphatics. This was Hunter's last published work; he was in poor health when the book went to press and died after correcting only one-third of the proofs. The remainder of the work's publication was supervised by Matthew Baillie and Everard Home.

  • 19

Aesclapiadis Bithyni fragmenta. Digessit et curavit Christianus Gottlieb Gumpert. Praefatus est Christian. Gothfridus Gruner.

Weimar: Sumptibus novi Bibliopolii vulgo Industriie-Comptoir dicti, 1794.

After the fall of Corinth (146 BCE), Greek physicians migrated to Rome. There, before the advent of Asclepiades, Greek physicians were despised and distrusted. Asclepiades may be said to have established Greek medicine in Rome on a respectable footing. His remedies included change of diet, bathing, and exercise. Gumpert preserved what is left of his writings in the above Greek edition. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, PHYSICAL MEDICINE / REHABILITATION › Physical Therapy, THERAPEUTICS › Balneotherapy, THERAPEUTICS › Hydrotherapy
  • 3879

De curandis hominum morbis epitome. Liber V.

Mannheim: C. F. Schwann & C. G. Goetz, 1794.

Frank was the first to define diabetes insipidus (pp. 38-67).

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 3428.1

An account of a singular case of obstructed deglutition.

Mem. med. Soc. Lond., 2, 275-86, 1794.

Bayford reported a a fatal case of "obstructed deglutition" caused by compression of the oesophagus by an aberrant right subclavian artery. This he called Dysphagia lusoria. See the account by N. Asherson in Ann. roy. Coll. Surg. Eng., 1979, 6l, 63-67.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Esophagus: Stomach: Duodenum: Intestines
  • 4307

A practical essay on a certain disease of the bones termed necrosis.

Edinburgh: Bell & Bradfute, 1794.

One of the first attempts at a complete and detailed description of necrosis. Russell was the first Professor of Clinical Surgery at Edinburgh.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 5735.1

Article on Indian rhinoplasty.

Gentleman’s Magazine, 64, pt. 2, 891-92, 1794.

The first report published in Europe on the so-called Indian or Hindu method of rhinoplasty using a forehead flap, accompanied by an engraving of the patient, Cowasjee, with a restored nose and showing the stages of the operation. The article was signed by only "B. L." 

News of the procedure was first reported in the Hircarrah of The Madras Gazette of August 4, 1794. Prior to that a copperplate engraving by R. Mabon after James Wales's portrait of Cowasjee was published in Bombay on March 20, 1794. The article in the Gentleman's Magazine signed B.L. has been attributed to Barak Longmate. Following that publication a broadside reproducing the same portrait of Cowasjee with the same text was issued in London on January 1, 1795. Both broadside versions are exceptionally rare.

Mukherjee, N.S. et al, "A Nose Lost and Honour Regained: The Indian Method of Rhinoplasty Revisited," Proceedings of the Indian Congress, 72 (2011) 968-977.  

  • 5453

An account of the bilious remitting yellow fever, as it appeared in the city of Philadelphia in the year 1793.

Philadelphia: T. Dobson, 1794.

Benjamin Rush was the most eminent figure in Philadelphia medicine in his day. His description of the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 is classic. He did magnificent work in treating the sick during the epidemic and in proposing measures to prevent a recurrence. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 5453.1

A narrative of the proceedings of the black people during the late awful calamity in Philadelphia, in the year 1793: and a refutation of some censures thrown upon them in some late publications.

Philadelphia: Printed for the authors by William W. Woodward, 1794.

A refutation of slights by Matthew Carey in his Short account of the malignant fever, lately prevalent in Philadelphia (1793; No. 5451) to the important contributions of black people, many of whom served as nurses and gravediggers during the epidemic. The Narrative is followed by a letter to Mattthew Clarkson, mayor of Philadelphia, signed by Jones and Allen, with Clarkson's reply. One of the earliest medical publications written by African Americans; both Allen and Jones were black ministers in Philadelphia. Digital facsimile from the National Library of Medicine, Internet Archive, at this link.

  • 6157.1

An anatomical description of the human gravid uterus and its contents.

London: J. Johnson; and G. Nicol, 1794.

Hunter’s text for No. 6157, edited and published by Matthew Baillie after William Hunter's death. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 7659

Instructions for collecting and preserving various subjects of natural history; as animals, birds, reptiles, shells, corals, plants, &c. Together with A treatise on the management of insects in their several states; selected from the best authorities.

London: printed for the author; and sold by Messrs. Rivingtons, 1794.

Digital text available from ECCO TCP Eighteenth Century Collections Online at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 8004

Demostracion de las eficaces virtudes nuevamente descubiertas en las raices de dos plantas de Nueva-España, especies de ágave y de begónia, para la curacion del vicio venéreo y escrofuloso ...

Madrid: En la impr. de la viuda de Joaquin Ibarra, 1794.

Balmis conducted experimental trials on the effectiveness of two Mexican plants, agave and begonia, which were believed, according to folk medicine practices in Mexico, to cure syphilis and scrofula. The trials confirmed that the plants were ineffective. He published the results in a deluxe book with two handsome hand-colored plates.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Scrofula (Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Latin American Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › Drug Trials, TRADITIONAL, Folk or Indigenous Medicine
  • 9086

The natural history of British birds; or, a selection of the most rare, beautiful and interesting birds which inhabit this country: The descriptions from the Systema naturae of Linnaeus; with general observations, either original or collected from the latest and most esteemed English ornithologists; and embellished with figures, drawn, engraved, and coloured from the original specimens. 10 vols.

London: Printed for the Author...., 17941819.

The first 5 volumes were issued in monthly parts, each consisting of 2 plates and accompanying text. A volume came out each year between 1794 and 1798; the fifth volume stated: "This work being now completed." However, five additional volumes, numbered 6-10, were published between 1816 and 1819. Donovan based some of his descriptions and illustrations on the bird specimens he acquired from the Leverian Museum. He issued a companion work, The natural history of the nest and eggs of British birds, begining in 1826. This remained unfinished at his death, with just 5 parts (of an anticipated 24 parts) completed.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Archive, Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 9387

An enquiry into, and observations upon the causes and effects of the epidemic disease, which raged in Philadelphia from the month of August till towards the middle of December, 1793.

Philadelphia: Printed by Parent, 1794.

Text in English and French on facing pages. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever
  • 9526

Considerations on the medicinal use, and on the production of factitious airs and on the manner of obtaining them in large quantities: In two parts.

Bristol: Printed by Bulgin &Rosser & London: J. Johnson, 1794.

The engineer James Watt collaborated with the physician, Thomas Beddoes, in this project. This was Watt's only contribution to medicine. While much of Beddoes' work proved ineffective it did result in Humphrey Davy's discovery of the anesthetic effect of nitrous oxide. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. In 1796 Watt published Supplement to the description of a pneumatic apparatus, for preparing factitious airs : containing a description of a simplified apparatus, and of a portable apparatus. Digital facsimile of the supplement from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Chemistry
  • 9833

Engravings, explaining the anatomy of the bones, muscles and joints.

Edinburgh: John Patterson for Bell & Bradfute, 1794.

Bell’s atlas of the bones, muscles and joints was issued as a separate work a year after his text, The Anatomy of the Bones, Muscles, and Joints. Bell’s illustrations are some of the most striking in the entire literature. “Certainly they have the immediacy of drawings made in the dissecting rooms of late Georgian Edinburgh. Some are quite gruesome and even perverted . . . In their context, however, they are admirable, for they were intended to be used to supplement the teacher’s demonstrations, to remind the student of what he had seen, and to be a guide when the student sat down with the prosected material. It was under the Bells . . . that the extramural schools brought the aspiring surgeon much closer to the cadaver, allowing the student opportunities for actual dissection” (Roberts & Tomlinson, The Fabric of the Body [1992] 491).

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 9989

Hortus Americanus, containing an account of the trees, shrubs, and other vegetable productions of South-America and the West-India islands, and particularly of the island of Jamaica; interspersed with many curious and useful observations, respecting their uses in medicine, diet, and mechanics.

Kingston, Jamaica: Printed and Published by Alexander Aikman, 1794.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Dendrology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean, NUTRITION / DIET, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 10470

Die Bleyglasur de irdenen Küchengeschirrs als eine unerkannte Hauptquelle vieler unserer Krankheiten und Mitursache der Abnahme körperlicher Kräfte der Menschen.

Hannover: Gebr. Hahn, 1794.

On the lead glaze of earthen kitchen utensils as an unrecognized source of many diseases.

  • 11782

Medicina theologica, ou supplica humilde, feita a todos os senhores confessores e directores, sobre o modo de proceder com seus penitentes na emenda dos peccados, principalmente da lascivia, colera, e bebedice.

Lisbon: Antonio Rodrigues Galhardo, 1794.

The first Portuguese work on psychosomatic medicine. The author was a Brazilian who worked in Portugal. Digital facsimile from at this link.

  • 11830

Theophanis Nonni Epitome de cvratione morborvm graece ac latine: Ope codicvm manvscriptorvm recensvit notasqve adiecit I. O. Steph. Bernard. 2 vols.

Gotha: C. W. Ettinger & Amsterdam: J. St. von Esveldt Holtrop et Soc., 1794.

Reprints text and translation from Martius's 1568 edition with extensive annotations by Bernard, and divergent manuscript readings based on the study of several codices. For an analysis of this Byzantine medical handbook of thereputics see Joseph A. M. Sonderkamp, "Theophanes Nonnus: Medicine in the Circle of Constantine Porphyrogenitus," Dunbarton Oaks Papers, 38, Symposium on Byzantine Medicine (1984) 29-41.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 12686

The life of Sir Charles Linnaeus, Knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, &c. &c. To which is added a copious list of his works, and a biographical sketch of the life of his son, by D. H. Stoever. Translated from the original German by Joseph Trapp.

London: B. and J. White, 1794.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 595

Experiments on the insensible perspiration of the human body.

London: G. Nicol, 1795.

Demonstration that carbon dioxide is given off by the skin. This book was first privately printed in 1779; above is the corrected edition.

  • 2609.1

De morbis vasorum absorbentium corporis humani.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1795.

Soemmerring noted an association between pipe smoking and cancer of the lip (p. 109).

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction
  • 3111

Hints respecting the chlorosis of boarding schools.

London: C. Dilly, 1795.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 5336.3

An essay on the malignant pestilential fever introduced into the West Indian Islands from Boullam, on the coast of Guinea, as it appeared in 1793 and 1794.

London: C. Dilly, 1795.

Chisholm, "Surgeon to his Majesty's Ordnance in Grenada," was apparently the first to observe the mode of transmission of the Guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis. Chishom was also one of the first to recognize that the yellow fever epidemic of 1793-1794 was caused by some factor brought to the western hemisphere by the Hankey, a ship that had sailed from the west coast of Africa. However, like the rest of his medical peers, Chisholm did not understand that mosquitoes were vectors of the disease. Digital facsimile of the 1795 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. 

In 1801 Chisholm, by then "Inspector-General of the Ordnance Medical Department in the West Indies," issued from London a greatly expanded second edition in two volumes as: An essay on the malignant pestilential fever introduced into the West Indian islands from Boullam, on the coast of Guinea, as it appeared in 1793, 1794, 1795, and 1796. Interspersed with observations and facts, tending to prove that the epidemic existing at Philadelphia, New-York, &c. was the same fever introduced by infection imported from the West India Islands: And illustrated by evidences founded on the state of those islands, and the information of the most eminent practiioners residing on them. 

Digital facsimile of the second edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 6272

A treatise on the epidemic puerperal fever of Aberdeen.

London: G. G. & J. Robinson, 1795.

Gordon was the first to advance as a definite hypothesis the contagious nature of puerperal fever, thus preceding Holmes and Semmelweis by half a century. He also advocated the disinfection of the clothes of the doctor and midwife.

  • 10016

The history of medicine, so far as it relates to the profession of the apothecary, ... the origin of druggists, their gradual encroachments on compound pharmacy, and the evils to which the public are from thence exposed.

London: C. Dilly, 1795.

 The first history of pharmacy in Britain. Good’s History was commissioned by the General Pharmaceutical Association, formed in 1794, of which the author was a prominent member. It was intended to protect the trade of the apothecaries against the growing number of medicine dispensing druggists and chemists.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 13237

Escuela española de sordo mudos, ó arte par enseñaries á escribir y hablar el idoma española. 2 vols.

Madrid: En la Imprenta Real, 1795.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education
  • 310

An account of Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel: containing descriptions and drawings of each species, together with experiments and remarks on their several poisons.

London: G. Nicol, 1796.

First attempt at a description of Indian serpents and serpent venoms. Includes the original description of Russell’s viper, Daboia russellii. Digital facsimile from the Linda Hall LIbrary at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 596

Von der Lebenskraft.

Arch. Physiol. (Halle), 1, 8-162, 1796.

Reil advanced the doctrine of the life-force as the chemical expression of physiological function. Like Glisson and Hunter, he recognized irritability as a specific property of tissue. He founded the Archiv für die Physiologie, the first journal of physiology. Volume 1 was issued in 3 parts. This first issue of the journal, containing Reil's long paper, appeared in 1795. The volume was complete in 1796, at which time a title page for the complete volume was issued, dated 1796. Reil published 12 volumes of the Archiv für die Physiologie from 1796 to 1813.

  • 1387

Exercitationum anatomicarum fasciculus primus. De structura nervorum, tribus tabulis aeneis illustratus [All published].

Halle: Curtiana Venalis, 1796.

Description of the “island of Reil”. This was the first part of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres to be given a name since 1641 (No. 1377.3). See also Reil’s follow-up paper in Arch. Physiol. (Halle), 1809, 9, 136-46; Reil was the editor of this journal, the first periodical devoted to physiology.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 3985
  • 4018

On cutaneous diseases. Vol. 1 [All published].

London: J. Johnson, 17961808.

Modern dermatology may be said to start with Willan. His classification of skin diseases gained him the Fothergillian Medal of the Medical Society of London in 1790. He established a standard nomenclature which is still more or less in use today. He was also a clinician of great ability who made numerous original observations. His book was issued in four parts under the title “Description and treatment of cutaneous diseases”, from 1798 to 1808, and only vol. 1 had been completed when Willan died. The first three parts exist in revised versions. Copies of the book may contain varying states of the parts. See F. Sutherland, Willan’s Cutaneous diseases, J. Hist. Med., 1958, 13, 92-94, supplementing T. Beswick, Robert Willan, J. Hist. Med., 1957, 12, 349-65. The above work and that of Alibert (No. 3986) are the first dermatological works with colored plates. 

Includes (pp. 73-76) original description of prurigo mitis; under the name “ichthyosis cornea” Willan quoted Crusio’s case of scleroderma (see pp. 197-212); Willan also established psoriasis as a separate skin disease (pp. 152-88). 

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 6849

Versuch über ein neues Prinzip zur Auffindung der Heilkräfte der Arzneisubstanzen, nebst einigen Blicken auf die bishberigan.

Hufeland's Journal der practischen Arzneykunde und Wundearzneykunst 2, part 3, 391-439; & part 4, 465-561, Jena: Akademischen Buchhandlung, 1796.

Hahnemann's first presentation of his new system of medicine. English translation in The Lesser Writings of Samuel Hahnemann, Collected and Translated by R. E. Dudgeon, London: W. Headland, 1851, 195-357.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy
  • 7093

Catalogus bibliothecae historico-naturalis Josephi Banks, auctore Jona Dryander. 5 vols.

London: Typis Gul. Bulmer et Soc., 17961800.

Digital facsimile of the 5 vols. from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries, NATURAL HISTORY
  • 7723

Anatomisches museum. Gesammelt von Johann Gottlieb Walter. Beschrieben von Friedrich August Walter. 2 vols.

Berlin: Belitz und Braun, 1796.

Includes fine hand-colored plates of kidney stones and gall stones. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones), UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 11958

Hortus cantabrigiensis, or a catalogue of plants, indigenous and foreign, cultivated in the Walkerian Botanic Garden, Cambridge.

Cambridge, England: Sold by James Donn, Curator, at the Botanic Garden, 1796.

The Walkerian Botanic Garden was the first botanical garden founded in Cambridge. It is the ancestor of the Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens
  • 13162

An account of the epidemic fever which prevailed in the city of New York, during part of the summer and fall of 1795.

New York: T. and J. Swords, 1796.

Traces the spread of yellow fever in late July, 1795, to the ship Zephyr, recently arrived from the West Indies. After spreading to nearby ships and then into the neighborhoods surrounding the port, the epidemic killed nearly eight hundred people, and lingered until mid-October, afflicting a large portion of the city. Bayley also analyzes the potential causes of the disease in general, and discusses the various treatments that he used and witnessed being used around New York. 

Digital text from at this link.

  • 13243

De corporis humani viribus conservatricibus dissertatio.

Göttingen: Johann Christian Dieterich, 1796.

Young's thesis for his medical degree from Göttingen on the conservation of strength in the human body, which also contains, on the final four pages, the only extant fragment of Young's brief thesis on the human voice prepared for his oral examination. It was this last, as Young's biographer tells us, that began Young on his career in physics: "[The fragment] gives an alphabet of forty-seven letters designed to express, by their combination, every sound which the organs of the human voice are capable of forming. . . . Here we see his early and sustained interest in languages combined with his interest in anatomy. From this combination he developed an interest in the production and propagation of sound...." (Wood / Oldham, Thomas Young, pp. 49-50). Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 4519

De paralysi musculorum faciei rheumatici.

Würzburg, 1797.

Facial paralysis first described.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 401

Tabula sceleti feminini juncta descriptione.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1797.

Soemmerring was noted for his accuracy in anatomical illustration, and the above work is a fine example of his artistic sense. For it he selected the skeleton of a well-built girl of 20 years. Great care was taken in selecting the most appropriate posture and the contour of an ideally perfect female body in which the skeleton might be drawn in order properly to observe its proportions.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 863.1

Observations and experiments on the colour of blood.

Phil. Trans., 87, 416-31, 1797.

Wells showed that the coloring matter in the blood was not iron but a complex organic substance subsequently identified as hematin.

  • 401.3

The anatomy of the human body. 4 vols.

Edinburgh: Cadell & Davies, 17971804.

“The first great textbook contributed by the British school to modern anatomy” (Russell, No. 461).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 2159

Medicina nautica; an essay on the diseases of seamen. 3 vols.

London: T. Cadell, jun. & W. Davies (T. N. Longman and O. Rees), 17971803.

Trotter has left an excellent account of the conditions of seamen at the beginning of the 19th century. His book includes an interesting theory of the causation of fevers. He worked hard to improve the conditions of the ship’s medical officer and the seaman.

Subjects: MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Navy, Maritime Medicine
  • 1602

Die Kunst das menschliche Leben zu verlängern

Jena: Akad. Buchhandlung, 1797.

Hufeland’s “Makrobiotik”, one of the most popular books of its time on personal hygiene. It was translated into all European languages. Hufeland was court physician at Weimar. English translation, 1797.

Subjects: Hygiene, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 1218

Experiments in which, on the third day after impregnation, the ova of rabbits were found in the Fallopian tubes, and on the fourth day after impregnation in the uterus itself, with the first appearances of the foetus.

Phil. Trans., 87,197-214, 1797.

Cruikshank showed that the impregnated ovum stayed in the Fallopian tube for a period before implantation in the uterus.

Subjects: Genito-Urinary System
  • 1988

Medical reports, on the effects of water, cold and warm, as a remedy in fever and febrile diseases.

Liverpool: Cadell & Davies, 1797.

Currie was among the first in Britain to use cold water packs in the treatment of fever. He made some original observations on the clinical use of the thermometer. It was Currie who first edited Robert Burns’s Collected Works.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Thermometer, THERAPEUTICS › Balneotherapy
  • 2736
  • 3167.1

The morbid anatomy of some of the most important parts of the human body. 2nd ed.

London: J. Johnson & G. Nicol, 1797.

First clinical description of chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema. The lung on which Baillie performed an autopsy before describing this condition is said to have been that of Samuel Johnson. P. 46: Baillie suggested a relationship between rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease. See also Nos. 2281, 3218, & 3427.

  • 3930

An account of two cases of the diabetes mellitus: With remarks, as they arose during the progress of the cure. To which are added, a general view of the nature of the disease and its appropriate treatment, including observations on some diseases depending on stomach affection; and a detail of the communications received on the subject since the dispersion of the notes on the first case....And some observations on the nature of sugar by William Cruickshank. 2 vols.

London: C. Dilly, 1797.

Rollo reported the success of a meat diet in the treatment of diabetes. He was the first to take Matthew Dobson's discovery of glycosuria in diabetes mellitus and apply it to managing metabolism.[He was a pioneer in the systematic treatment of diabetes by restricted diet. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 4287

On gouty and urinary concretions.

Phil. Trans., 87, 386-400., London, 1797.

Wollaston showed that, in addition to stones consisting of uric acid, renal calculi might also consist of calcium phosphate, magnesium, ammonium phosphate, and calcium oxalate, or a mixture of these.

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra), UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 7119

Versuche über die gereizte Muskel- und Nervenfaser: nebst Vermuthungen über den chemischen Process des Lebens in der Thier- und Pflanzenwelt. 2 vols.

Posen, Germany: Decker und Compagnie, 1797.

Digital facsimile from The Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link

Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 7687

An inquiry into the cause of the prevalence of the yellow fever in New-York.

Medical Repository I, 303-323., New York, 1797.

Includes four early plot maps; Seaman was one of the first to create maps that attempted to show the spread of contagious disease.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, Cartography, Medical & Biological, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › New York
  • 7768

The natural history of the rarer lepidopterous insects of Georgia. Including their systematic characters, the particulars of their several metamorphoses, and the plants on which they feed. Collected from the observations of Mr. John Abbot, many years resident in that country, by James Edward Smith.

London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Edwards, 1797.

The earliest illustrated monograph on the butterflies and moths of North America. Text in English and French. 104 hand-colored plates. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American South, NATURAL HISTORY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Georgia, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology › Lepidoptera, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 10481

An essay on burns: Principally upon those which happen to workmen in mines from the explosions of inflammable air (or hydrogen gas)....

London: G. G. and J. Robinson & Edinburgh: W. Creech, 1797.

Digital facsimile of the 1817 edition reprinting the 1797 work and the continuation (1800): A second essay on burns : in which an attempt is made to refute the opinions of Mr. Earle, and Sir W. Farquhar, lately advanced, on the supposed benefit of the application of ice in such accidents ..., from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Diseases Due to Physical Factors › Burns, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE
  • 11491

A practical inquiry into disordered respiration, distinguishing the species of convulsive asthma, their causes, and indications of cure,

Birmingham, England: Swinney & Hawkins & London: G. G. J. & J. Robinson, 1797.

Bree "embodied the numerous experiments in his own case, gave a more full and complete view of asthma and dyspnœa than had hitherto appeared, and laid down some important therapeutic rules, the practical value of which has been universally acknowledged" (Munk).

Subjects: ALLERGY › Asthma
  • 11497

Histoire naturelle des singes et des makis.

Paris: Desray, 17971800.

This work on monkeys and apes was published in a series of ten fascicules, with a total of 65 plates drawn and engraved by Audbert, and printed in color. Audebert was a miniaturist who developed a technique of color printing using oil-based inks that was first used in this work. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 402

A system of dissections. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: Mundell & Son, 17981803.

Published in 7 fascicules and appendix while Bell was still a student, this was Bell’s first independent venture as an author. The anatomical work of Charles Bell and his brother John was among the most significant in the British Isles during the early part of the 19th century; from the artistic point of view it was probably the finest during that period.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 4794

Observations on insanity.

F. & C. Rivington, 1798.

Haslam was among the first to describe general paralysis; he recorded three cases (pp. 64, 67, 92, 120).

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PSYCHIATRY
  • 3429

Observation sur un enfant né sans anus, et auquel il a été fait une ouverture pour y suppléer.

Rec. périod. Soc. Méd. Paris, 4, 45-50, 1798.

First successful construction of artificial anus, for congenital atresia, Oct. 20, 1793.

Subjects: Colon & Rectal Diseases & Surgery, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Atresia, Pediatric Surgery
  • 4969

Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht abgefasst.

Königsberg: F. Nicolovius, 1798.

Kant attempted a classification of mental diseases.

  • 2927
  • 4165.02
  • 5580

Oeuvres chirurgicales de P. J. Desault....ou tableau de sa doctrine & de sa pratique dans le traitement des maladies externes. Ouvrage publié par Xav. Bichat, son èlève. 3 vols.

Paris: la C. Ve. Desault & Méquignon l'aîné, 17981799.

Desault was one of the first professors at the École Pratique de Chirurgie, Paris. He made many suggestions regarding the treatment of fractures and dislocations and is one of the founders of modern vascular surgery. In Remarques et observations sur l’opération de l’anévrisme (Vol. 2,  553-80) he described his technique of tying blood vessels for the treatment of aneurism.  Desault was Xavier Bichat’s teacher, and Bichat edited the first edition of this set.
In the second edition (3 vols., 1801-3) volume 3, which concerns urological diseases, was edited by P. J. Roux. With Chopart, Desault founded urological surgery, and was one of the first to have a clear understanding of urological disease. Vol. 1 was translated into English as A Treatise on Fractures, luxations and other affections of the bones, Philadelphia, 1805. The translation of vols. 2 & 3 was entitled The Surgical Works, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1814. Desault edited the first journal specifically on surgery: Journal de chirurgie, 4 vols., 1791-92. 

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations, SURGERY: General , UROLOGY, VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 5834

Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours.

Mem. lit. phil. Soc. Manch., 5 pt. 1, 28-45., 1798.

First scientific description of color-blindness, or “Daltonism”. Dalton himself suffered from red–green blindness. His paper was read to the Society in 1794.

  • 2529.3
  • 5423

An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae.

London: S. Low, 1798.

Jenner established the fact that a “vaccination” or inoculation with vaccinia (cowpox) lymph matter protects against smallpox. He performed his first vaccination on May 14, 1796. The above work, describing 23 successful vaccinations, announced to the world one of the greatest triumphs in the history of medicine. Jennerian vaccination soon superseded the protective inoculation of material from human cases of small-pox, which had previously been in vogue. What is probably the first mention of anaphylaxis appears on p. 13 of the pamphlet. See W.R. Lefanu, A Bio-bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1749-1823, rev. 2nd. ed., Winchester, St. Paul’s Bibliographies, 1985. Several facsimile editions have been published. As a result of the success of Jenner’s vaccine natural smallpox was eradicated. The official declaration was made by the World Health Organization on May 8, 1980. See No. 5434.2. 

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination
  • 6236.1

A case of the caesarean operation performed, and the life of the woman preserved. IN: Medical records and researches selected from the papers of a private medical association, pp. 154-163.

London: T. Cox, 1798.

This is apparently the first Caesarean section in England from which the mother recovered. It was performed on 27 November 1793. Barlow’s account is reproduced by Young (No. 6307), pp. 54-58. A note on Barlow is in Practitioner, 1965, 195, 103-08. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Caesarian Section
  • 1693
  • 215.4

An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society.

London: J. Johnson, 1798.

Malthus laid down the principle that populations increase in geometrical ratio, but that subsistence increases only in arithmetical ratio. He argued that a stage is reached where increase of populations must be limited by sheer want, and he advocated checks on population increase in order to reduce misery and want. His work was an important influence on both Darwin and Wallace in their formulation of the concept of natural selection. It also had a profound influence on the decrease in size of families down to the present time. The book was at first published anonymously, but Malthus attached his name to the greatly expanded second edition of 1803. Malthus continued to revise the work through the sixth edition, 2 vols., 1826. All editions but the fourth contain significant new material.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, ECONOMICS, BIOMEDICAL, EVOLUTION
  • 7978

An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind, and a history of the passions and their effects. 2 vols.

London: T. Cadell, Junior, and W. Davies, 1798.

In chapter 2 of vol. 1, pp. 254-90, “On Attention and its Diseases” Crichton described a mental state much like the inattentive subtype of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). He did not mention any symptoms of hyperactivity. It is possible that Crichton observed hyperactive or impulsive symptoms in his patients, but failed to recognize a correlation and decided not to specify them in this context. He began his chapter with a definition of attention. Digital facsimile of Vol. 1 from the Internet Archive at this link; of Vol. 2 at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOLOGY › Cognitive Disorders
  • 8654

The influence of metallic tractors on the human body, in removing various painful inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatism, pleurisy, some gouty affections, &c. &c: Lately discovered by Dr. Perkins, of North America; and demonstrated in a series of experiments and which the importance of the discovery is fully ascertained, and a new field of enquiry opened in the modern science of Galvanism, or animal electricity. By Benjamin Douglas Perkins, son to the discoverer.

London: J. Johnson, 1798.

In 1795 Dr. Elisha Perkins (1741-1799) of Connecticut introduced the use of “Metallic Tractors” for the treatment of a wide range of disorders, including pains in the head, face, teeth, breast, side, stomach, back, rheumatism and gout. During the next decade the devices were the subject of intense controversy in America and Europe. The Tractors measured about 3” long and were sold in pairs; they were made up of certain metals (their precise composition was kept secret) that perportedly worked through the agency of “animal magnetism.” A great number of ailing consumers paid huge prices for Perkins’s Metallic Tractors; George Washington bought several sets. The Perkins name may have been the first successful international “name branding” campaign. Elisha Perkiins did not publish on the "Tractors," leaving that aspect to his son Benjamin Douglas Perkins. This book was not published in America; presumably because with the craze for the product in America there was no need to publish a book to promote the "Tractors" there. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , Quackery, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra), THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 9082

An epitome of the natural history of the insects of China: Comprising figures and descriptions of upwards of one hundred new, singular, and beautiful species: together with some that are of importance in medicine, domestic economy, &c. The figures are accurately, drawn, engraved, and coloured, from speciemsn of the insects; the descriptions are arranged accordig to the system of Linnaeus, with references to the writings of Fabricius, and other systematic authors.

Printed for the Author, by T. Bensley, 1798.

The first work in a Western language on the insects of China, including pharmaceutical aspects. For this work Donovan obtained specimens and information from George Macartney a British envoy to China. Includes 50 colored plates, which are the first western depiction of Chinese insects.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 9309

Collections for an essay towards a materia medica of the United States. Read before the Philadelphia Medical Society, on the twenty-first of February, 1798.

Philadelphia: Printed, For the Author, 1798.

Digital facsimile of the 1798 edition from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link. Digital facsimile of the much-expanded third edition (1810) from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Pennsylvania
  • 10035

Of the treatment of the dying: Disturb him not-let him pass peaceably. IN: Medical histories and reflections, volume 3, 191-208.

London: Cadell & Davies, 1798.

"This apparently first-ever full essay on palliative care is tightly reasoned and carefully crafted—an innovative classic that attests to years of first-hand experience in the care of gravely ill and dying persons" (Vanderpool, Palliative care [2015] 26). Digital facsimile of the full text in the Philadelphia,1816 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Palliative Care , Ethics, Biomedical
  • 10577

Opuscules du C[itoy]en Desgenettes, Médecin en chef de l'Armée d'Orient.

Cairo: Imprimerie nationale, 17981801.

A collection of nine separately printed pamphlets issued by Napoleon's press in Cairo during his Egyptian campaign. See J.-F. Hutin, "La littérature médicale de la campagne d'Égypte", Histoire des sciences medicales, 46, (2012) 19-30.

  • 11796

An entire new treatise on leeches, wherein the nature, properties, and use of that most singular and valuable reptile, is most clearly set forth.

[London]: Printed for and Sold by the Author, 1798.

Digital facsimiel from at this link.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Marine Parasitology, THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting, ZOOLOGY › Annelidology
  • 13326

Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis, sive, descriptiones et icones plantarum Peruvianarum, et Chilensium, secundum systema Linnaeanum digestae, cum characteribus plurium generum evulgatorum reformatis. 3 vols.

Madrid: Typis Gabrielis de Sancha, 17981802.

The authors originally intended this work resulting from their researches conducted during the Expedición Botánica al Virreinato del Perú to be published in 8 vols., and by later design in 12. However, only the first 3 volumes were published, the others remaining in manuscript; the 100 plates to accompany v. 4 and also some for v. 5 were prepared. The manuscript of the entire work is preserved in the Jardin botánico de Madrid. cf. Colmeiro.

The text and plates for v. 4-5 were published in Anales del Instituto Botánico A.J. Cavanilles, v. 12-16, 1954-1959--Stafleu. Digital facsimile of the 3 vols. originally published and plates 1-325 from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

  • 1553

De penitiori ossium structura commentarius.

Leipzig: J. F. Hartknoch, 1799.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 473

Icones embryonum humanorum.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1799.

Soemmerring met William Hunter during a visit to London in 1778. The latter’s classic work on the pregnant uterus (No. 6157) dealt only with the latter half of pregnancy. Soemmerring therefore decided, in a supplementary volume, to deal with the appearance of the embryo during the first half of pregnancy. This book is one of the best illustrated of Soemmerring’s works.

  • 1675.1

A brief history of epidemic and pestilential diseases. 2 vols.

Hartford, CT: Hudson & Goodwin, 1799.

“The best general summary of epidemiological opinion at the beginning of the nineteenth century; and few works surpass it as a compendium of earlier speculations in this field”. (Winslow). A great linguist, Webster was the author of the famous dictionary. Osler considered the above work the most important American medical work written by a layman.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) › Plague, History of
  • 2282

A series of engravings, accompanied with explanations, which are intended to illustrate the morbid anatomy of some of the most important parts of the human body.

London: W. Bulmer & Co., 17991803.

The first systematic atlas of pathology. This work was intended to illustrate No. 2281, but, with its extensive descriptive text for each plate, it may be appreciated separately. The black & white engravings were prepared by John Hunter’s artist and amanuensis, William Clift (1775-1849), and depict numerous specimens from Hunter’s collection. A color facsimile edition of Clift’s personal copy reproducing his original watercolors, including some loaned by the Royal College of Physicians, was published in Melbourne, Univ. of Melbourne Press, 1985.

Subjects: PATHOLOGY, PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration
  • 1734

Les lois éclairées par les sciences physiques, ou traité de médecine légale et hygiène publique. 3 vols.

Paris: Croullebois et Deterville, 1799.

This important publication was for many years the authoritative textbook on the subject in France.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 2888

An inquiry into the symptoms and causes of the syncope anginosa commonly called angina pectoris.

Bath, England: R. Cruttwell; London, Cadell & Davis, 1799.

This was a paper read before the Gloucester Medical Society in 1788, but not published until 1799. Largely confirming the earlier work of Heberden on the condition, Parry stated his conclusion that disease of the coronary arteries is the responsible factor in angina pectoris (which he called “syncope anginosa”). He was the first to observe the slowing of the heart rate folowing pressure on the carotid artery.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 6162

Account of the dissection of an hermaphrodite dog.

Phil. Trans., 18, 157-78, 1799.

Home records (p. 162) that John Hunter suggested artificial insemination. The actual insemination was performed by the patient’s husband with a syringe.

  • 6707

Biographia medica; or, historical and critical memoirs of the lives and writings of the most eminent medical characters that have existed from the earliest account of time to the present period; with a catalogue of their literary productions. 2 vols.

London: J. Johnson, 1799.

British and foreign medical biographies.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 6750.1

Bibliotheca medico-practica et chirurgica realis recentior sive continuatio et supplementa initiorum bibliothecae medico-practicae et chirurgicae. 4 vols.

Tubingen: J. G. Cotta, 17991803.

Continuation of No. 6750.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 7218

Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania. Part First [All Published].

Philadelphia: Printed for the Author by Way & Groff, 1799.

This 24-page pamphlet is the first work by an American devoted entirely to American birds. It deals predominantly with migratory birds, arranged according to the dates throughout the year 1791 in which they were first seen in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. Digital text available from Evans Early American Imprint Collection at this link.

  • 7292

Mémoire sur les espèces d’éléphans vivantes et fossiles.

Mémoires de l’Institut national des sciences et arts: Sciences mathématiques et physiques [Section 2: Mémoires], 2, 1-22, 1799.

Using comparative anatomy, Cuvier demonstrated that the African elephant was a separate species from the Indian elephant, and that the fossil or “mammoth” elephant was yet another species distinct from the two living varieties. This was the first scientific proof of extinct species. Cuvier first read this paper on January 21, 1796 at an ordinary meeting of the Institut National in Paris in 1796, and then again on April 4 at the first of the Institut’s quarterly public meetings. For the April 4 meeting Cuvier prepared an extract of his paper which was published in the Magasin encyclopédique (2. année 3 [1796]: 440-445). Cuvier’s full report, updated and illustrated with five plates, was first published in 1799. In his autobiography Cuvier stated that this was the paper in which he first expressed his views on extinct animals.

Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution, Paleontology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 7931

Travels in the interior districts of Africa: Performed under the direction and patronage of the African Association, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797. By Mungo Park, surgeon. With an appendix, containing geographical illustrations of Africa by Major Rennell.

London: G. and W. Nicol, 1799.

Park, a Scottish physician, was the first Westerner to travel to the central portion of the Niger River. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientsts, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 9070

Ensaios sobre algumas enfermidades d'Angola....

Lisbon: Na Regia Officiana Typografica, 1799.

Azeredo noted that the tropical fevers found in Brazil and Angola were very similar. He claimed to have achieved excellent results with his “new method” of treatment, which included the use of quinine, nux vomica, arsenic, and the inside of the coconut rind. The Ensaios has separate sections dealing with the causes and cures of dysentery and tetanus. In the introduction, Pinto de Azeredo attacks the excessive use of bleeding in Angola and in America (“com particularidade na Bahia”). Lengthy footnotes include citations of authoritative references and recipes for cures such as various kinds of tea. (Richard Ramer). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Angola, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, Latin American Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark › Quinine, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 9552

Tratado de las operaciones que deben practicarse en la dentadura y método para conservarla en buen estado, recopilado de los mejores autores, y adornado con láminas que manifiestan la diferencia, forma y figura de los instrumentos necesarios para dichas operaciones.

Madrid: Franganillo, 1799.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 10511

A description of the American yellow fever, which prevailed at Charleston, in South Carolina, in the year 1748.

Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1799.

Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

  • 11592

An essay on the medical properties of the digitalis purpurea or foxglove.

Manchester: Printed by Bowler and Russell & London: For Messrs. Cadell and Davies, 1799.

"John Ferriar...published the first monograph on digitalis after William Withering (1785). Ferriar was the first to suggest that digitalis was beneficial in dropsy (severe congestive heart failure), in part because it appeared to act directly on the heart" (W. Bruce Fye, Profiles in cardiology, 76).

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Failure, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Digitalis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 12854

Korrt underrattelse om de mast vanliga tand-sjukdomar.

Stockholm: Henrik And. Nordstrom, 1799.

The first dental monograph published in Swedish.

"Joel Assur was born in Bernburg, Germany as the son of the Jewish merchant Anschel Levin Joel Assur and Zipora Joel. He emigrated from Mecklenburg in 1791, and established himself as a dentist in Stockholm . He is referred to as "one of Sweden's first dentists". Assur was successful and had a high reputation. He was appointed chief dentist with the title of Congl. Hovdentist.

"At this time, the dental profession was not fully formalized in Sweden, except that since 1663 permission was required to practice it and that they were prohibited from practicing other forms of medical care. The profession was practiced by surgeons, quackers, barbers and bathers who called themselves "dental doctors", "dentists", "dental doctors" or "dental artists". It was not until 1797 that a controlled degree began to be required, and the profession was formalized, and Assur was one of the first legitimate dentists in the modern sense.

"In 1799 he published a book on dentistry. It was a pioneer script: he was the first in Sweden to urge the public to brush their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste, and warned of the sugar's bad effects on teeth. In his book, he admitted that dentists during this time "bear enough general contempt and are counted in the same class with Charlatans and Adventurers" (Wikipedia article on Joel Assur, accessed 5-2020).