An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15969 entries, 13962 authors and 1940 subjects. Updated: June 12, 2024

LINNAEUS, Carl (Linné)

20 entries
  • 99

Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

Leiden: apud Theodorum Haak, 1735.

In Systema naturae Linnaeus developed the first logical and modern classifications of plants, animals and minerals. Its most valuable feature, the binomial nomenclature (genus and species), was probably devised in the first place by Joachim Jung, about 1640. Jung never published his system during his lifetime, and its posthumous publications were relatively obscure.

Linnaeus issued the first edition of this work as a series of large charts printed on both sides of seven sheets, or as a series of charts printed on one side only of twelve sheets. The most important edition of the Systema naturae is the tenth, published in 2 vols., 1758-59.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants, ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals
  • 1829

Genera plantarum.

Leiden: apud Conradum Wishoff , 1737.

Linnaeus’s botanical classification, the starting-point of modern systematic botany. The book is dedicated to Boerhaave. English translation by Erasmus Darwin, Lichfield, 1787.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 7462

Hortus Cliffortianus plantas exhibens quas in hortistam vivis quam siccis, Hartecampi in Hollandia, coluit ...Georgius Clifford.

Amsterdam: [Privately Printed], 1737.

The largest and most attractive book by Linnaeus, describing and illustrating plants in the garden and herbarium of George Clifford, governor of the Dutch East India Company, at Clifford's summer estate, Harlecamp. The book has been called the "first scholarly classification of an English garden." Engravings after botanical artist Georg Dionysius Ehret. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 7112

Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de Piscibus....omnia in hoc genere perfectiora, quam antea ulla. Posthuma vindicavit, recognovit, coaptavit & edidit Carolus Linnaeus.

Leiden: Conrad Wishoff, 1738.

After Artedi's mysterious and premature death by drowning at the age of 30 Linnaeus raised money to pay off Artedi's creditors and obtained his papers. These he published in the present five part work. The five parts are:

I. Bibliotheca Ichthyologica or Historia litteraria Icthyologiae, a chronologically arranged, annotated comprehensive analytical review of previous literature on fishes.

2. Philosophia Ichthyologica: Artedi's philosophy for establishing ichthyology as a science,

3. Genera Piscium, a classification of the fishes recognized by Artedi, containing 52 genera and 242 species.

4. Synonymia specierum, a list of names applicable to each of the species that Artedi recognized.

5. Descriptiones specierum piscium, descriptions of 71 species of fish, plus a whale that Artedi saw in London. 

Alwyne Wheeler, "Peter Artedi, founder of modern ichthyology," Proc. V Congr. europ. Ichtyol. Stockholm, 1985, 3-10. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology
  • 4616

Glömska af alla substantiva och i synnerhet namn.

K. Swenska Wetensk. Acad. Handl., 6, 116-17, 1745.

Aphasia first described. Facsimile reproduction and English translation by H. R. Viets, Bull. Hist. Med., 1943, 13, 328-33.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Aphasia, Agraphia, Agnosia, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of › Speech Disorders
  • 7597

Materia medica, liber I: De plantis.

Stockholm: Typis ac sumptis Laurentii Salvii, 1749.

Linnaeus’s physician’s reference on pharmacology. Linnaeus classified medicinal plants according to his botanical system and described the therapeutic value of the drugs derived from each plant. He was instrumental in introducing quassia (bitterwood), solanum (nightshade), dulcamara (bittersweet) and many other plant remedies into medicine. His work laid the foundation for the scientific study and development of materia medica, and remained a model for later authors on the subject.

The second and third volumes of this work, on animals and minerals respectively, were published together under the title Materies medica in 1763. Of this later title Soulsby notes: “This very rare work is founded on the Dissertations of 1750, Jonas Sidren, Respondens, & 1752, Johannes Lindhult, Resp. . . . Linnaeus was probably not concerned in its production.” 

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 11972

Philosophia botanica in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica cum definitionibus partium, exemplis terminorum, observationibus rariorum, adjectis figuris aeneis.

Stockholm: Godofr. Kiesewetter, 1751.

This work was "the first textbook of descriptive systematic botany and botanical Latin".[1] It also contains Linnaeus's first published description of his binomial nomenclature.

"Philosophia Botanica represents a maturing of Linnaeus's thinking on botany and its theoretical foundations, being an elaboration of ideas first published in his Fundamenta Botanica (1736) and Critica Botanica (1737), and set out in a similar way as a series of stark and uncompromising principles (aphorismen). The book also establishes a basic botanical terminology" (Wikipedia article Philosophia Botanica, accessed 3-2020).

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 99.1

Species plantarum. Exhibentes plantas rite cognitas ad genera relatas. Cum diferentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. 2 vols.

Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius, 1753.

In this work Linnaeus introduced his full binomial naming system for plants (binomial nomenclature).  Describing about 8,000 plant species from all over the world, the book demonstrated the value of a binomial system of nomenclature for biology generally, and was the stimulus to the development of this type of classification throughout the field.  Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 9558

Hans Maj:ts Adolf Frideriks vår allernådigste konungs naturalie samling innehållande sällsynte och främmande djur, som bevaras på kongl. lust-slottet Ulriksdahl beskrefne och afrit. Museum Adolfi Friderici ... in quo animalia rariora imprimis, et exotica: Quadrupedia, aves, amphibia, pisces, insecta, vermis. Vol. 2: Museum S:ae R:ae M:tis Adolphi Friderici Regis Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque &c. &c. &c. in quo Animalia rariora imprimis & exotica: Aves, Amphibia, Piscis describuntur. Tomi secundi Prodromus.

Stockholm: E Typographia Regia, 17541764.

Linnaeus's study of the royal natural history collections was important because to a considerable extent they formed the basis for his knowledge of animals. The collections contain many type specimens for animals described by Linnaeus in the 10th and 12th editions of Systema naturae. The first volume of Linnaeus's catalogue was published in folio with numerous illustrations chiefly herpetological: 23 of snakes and amphibia, with two plates showing monkeys, and several plates depicting fish. As a result of the rapid deterioration of state finances after the Seven Years War, the second volume did not appear until 1764, and is a comparatively insignificant octavo with no illustrations. 

Varying title form:

Museum Suae Regiae Maiestatis Adolphi Friderici Hans Maj:ts Adolf Frideriks vår allernådigste konungs naturalie samling Museum regis Adolphi Friderici. Konung Adolf Frideriks naturalie-samling

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, ZOOLOGY
  • 11880

Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. 2 vols.

Stockholm: Laurent Salvi, 17581759.

In the 10th edition of his Systema naturae, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals. He had previously introduced binomial nomenclature for plants in his Species Plantarum (1753). In this edition Linnaeus also introduced the term mammalia. Technically, Linnaeus first applied the term in the thesis of one of his students: Hager, Johann, Natura pelagi, quam, consens. experient. Facult. Medic. in illustri Academia Upsaliensi, sub præsidio ... Caroli Linnæi ... publicæ ventilationi offert ... (Upsalla, 1757).

"Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature therefore chose 1 January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date.[1] Names published before that date are unavailable, even if they would otherwise satisfy the rules. The only work which takes priority over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck's Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Suecici, which was published in 1757, but is also to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.[1]  (Wikipedia article on 10th edition of Systema Naturae, accessed 3-2020)

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants, ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals
  • 13545

Petri Loefling... Iter Hispanicum, eller Resa til spanska länderna uti Europa och America förrättad infrän år 1751 til år, 1756, med Beskrifningar och ron öfver de märkvärdigaste växyer, utgifven efter dess frånfälle af Carl Linnaeus.

Stockholm: Lars Salvii, 1758.

Edited by Carl Linnaeus after the early death of Pehr Löfling, who Linnaeus considered his most gifted disciple. This is the account of Löfling's mostly botanically oriented researches through Spain, Portugal, and northern Venezuela, particularly the area around Cumana, the capital of New Andalusia (now Venezuela).  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Venezuela, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 13640

Caroli Linnaei ... disquisitio de qvaestione ab Academia Imperiali Scientiarum Petropol. in annvm MDCCLIX. pro praemio proposita: sexum plantarum argumentis et experimentis nouis, praeter adhuc iam cognita, vel corroborare, vel impugnare, praemissa expositione historica et physica omnium plantae partium, quae aliquid ad foecundationem et perfectionem seminis et fructus conferre creduntur, ab eadem Academia die VI. Septembris MDCCLX. in conuentu publico praemio ornata.

St. Petersburg, Russia: Typis Academiae Scientiarum, 1760.

This work is typically referred to as Disquisitio de sexu plantarum. Translated into English as A dissertation on the sexes of plants translated from the Latin of Linnaeus by James Edward Smith. London: Printed for the author, and sold by George Nicol, 1786.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 8923

A system of vegetables, according to their classes, orders, genera, species with their characters and differences.... Translated from the thirteenth edition (As published by Dr. Murray) of the Systema vegetabilium of the late professor Linneus; and from the Supplementum plantarum of the present professor Linneus. By a Botanical Society, at Lichfield. 2 vols. [Edited by Erasmus Darwin.]

Lichfield, England: Printed by John Jackson & London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1783.

English translation of Linneus's Species plantarum (No. 99.1), edited by Charles Darwin's grandfather. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 13816

The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnæus. containing a complete systematic description, arrangement, and nomenclature, of all the known species and varieties of the mammalia, or animals which give suck to their young; Class I Mammalia. Being a translation of that part of the Systema naturae, as lately published, with great improvements, by Professor Gmelin of Goettingen. Together with numerous additions from more recent zoological writers, and illustrated with copperplates.

Edinburgh: A. Strahan & London: T. Cadell, 1792.

English translation of parts 1 and 2 of the 13th edition of Linnaeus's Systema naturae (1788-1793) edited by Johann Friedrich Gmelin. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Classification of Animals
  • 12686

The life of Sir Charles Linnaeus, Knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, &c. &c. To which is added a copious list of his works, and a biographical sketch of the life of his son, by D. H. Stoever. Translated from the original German by Joseph Trapp.

London: B. and J. White, 1794.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 7321

Lachesis Lapponica, or a tour in Lapland, now first published from the original manuscript journal of the celebrated Linnaeus; by James Edward Smith. 2 vols.

London: White and Cochrane, 1811.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sweden, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11233

A catalogue of the works of Linnaeus (and publications more immediately relating thereto) perserved in the libraries of the British Museum (Bloomsbury) and the British Museum (Natural History) (South Kennsington). Second edition. By B. H. Soulsby.

Printed by Order of the Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1933.

Includes a vast number of works theses and orations, of works edited by or supervised by Linnaeus or written with his cooperation. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BOTANY › History of Botany, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 13034

The Linnaeus Apostles. Global science & adventure. 8 vols. in 11. General editor: Lars Hansen.

London: The IK Foundation & Company, 20072010.

Vol. 1: Introduction
Vol. 2: Europe, Arctic & Asia. Anton Rolandsson Martin, Johan Peter Falck
Vol. 3: Europe, North & South America. Pehr Kalm, Pehr Löfling, Daniel Rolander
Vol. 4: Europe, Middle East, North East & West Africa. Göran Rothman, Fredrik Hasselquist, Peter Forsskäl, Andreas Berlin, Adam Afzelius.
Vol. 5: Southern Africa, Oceania, Antarctica & South America. Anders Sparrman.
Vol. 6: Europe, Southern Africa, East, Southern & Southeast Asia. Carl Peter Thunberg.
Vol. 7: Europe, Southern Africa, Oceania, South America, East, Southern & Southeast Asia. Pehr Osbeck, Olof Torén, Carl Fredrik Adler, Christopher Tärnström, Daniel Solander.
Vol. 8: Encyclopedia, Bibliography, Index

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 13641

Linnaeus Link.

London: Linnean Society of London, 2011.

"The Linnaeus Link Project is an international collaboration between libraries with significant holdings of Linnaean material. It is funded, maintained and co-ordinated by the Linnean Society of London.  Its main aim is to be a comprehensive, online Union Catalogue of Linnaean publications, facilitating research for scholars worldwide by enabling them to identify locations of titles with a single internet search.

"It also acts as the official bibliography of works by and relating to Linnaeus and his legacy by using and continuing the bibliographic work of Basil Soulsby."

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, BOTANY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Libraries & Databases, History of
  • 7526

A Linnean kaleidoscope: Linnaeus and his 186 dissertations. 2 vols.

Stockholm: The Hagströmer Medico-Historical Library, 2016.

The first comprehensive introduction to all 186 Linnaean dissertations, in the form of short essays (many illustrated) on each dissertation. Most of these dissertations, which were published in Latin, have remained relatively obscure until now. The essays describe the content of each dissertation, and place each dissertation its historical context. Topics of the dissertations include botany, zoology, pharmacology, and medicine.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, BOTANY › History of Botany, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, ZOOLOGY › History of Zoology