An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15969 entries, 13962 authors and 1940 subjects. Updated: June 12, 2024

BOLÍVAR ZAPATA, Francisco Gonzalo

3 entries
  • 10964

Expression in Escherichia coli of a chemically synthesized gene for the hormone somatostatin.

Science, 198, 1056-1063, 1977.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Itakura, Hirose, Crea..., Bolivar, Boyer. Synthesis of the gene for somatostatin (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). This was the first demonstration of a foreign gene inserted into E. coli and the first hormone genetically engineered in bacteria. The technique led to the biotechnological production of insulin by Genentech under the product name, Humulin. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation).



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, Biotechnology
  • 12031

The construction of molecular cloning vehicles. II. A multipurpose cloning system.

Gene, 2, 95-113, 1977.

Order of authorship in the original publication Bolivar, Rodriguez, Betlach...Boyer...The authors describe the composition and molecular construction of pBR-322 (named after Bolivar and Rodriguez) and call it "the most versatile plasmid we have ever constructed." The paper includes the first restriction map of the plasmid. Plasmid pBR-322 was the plasmid used in the synthesis of the gene for somatostatin (No. 10964), leading to the biotechnological production of insulin by Boyer's biotechnology company, Genentech in 1977. 

The authors presented this paper in June 1977. It was published in the journal Gene in November, 1977. The paper also appeared in Beers, Basset (eds.) Recombinant molecules: Impact on science and society, Miles International Symposium, Series No. 10. New York: Raven Press, 1977. The book form version of the paper indicates that it was submitted for publication in the journal, suggesting that the version in book form might have been released before the publication in the journal.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Restriction Enzyme or Restriction Endonuclease, Biotechnology
  • 13980

Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin (plasmid construction / lac operon / fused proteins / radioimmunoassay / peptide purification).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 76, 106-110, 1979.

Working at Genentech, Kleid and Goeddel and colleagues were the first scientists to apply genetic engineering techniques, incorporating chemically synthesized DNA encoding human insulin into E. coli, that expressed, after appropriate treatment, synethetic human insulin. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.




Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, Biotechnology, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes